Reconciling divergent normative orders The struggle for recognition regarding Customary Law among indigenous peoples
Tom G. Svensson (University of Oslo, Norway)
The contemporary processes of nation-building among a great number of indigenous peoples presume recognition of view, customary law is a workable starting point in connecting society and law focusing on indigeneity, thereby shedding light on the complexity of divergent legal arrangements, or legal pluralism. Following Clifford Geertz (1983) law-generating customs represent the cultural foundation of law, which should be perceived as a necessary prerequisite in attaining special rights, even culture-political autonomy. This form of indigenous nationhood does not counteract nation-state sovereignty, on the other hand, it may be viewed as a condition of anomie vis-a-vis the nation-state pointing to the dynamic creation of new social orders presumed in meeting new demands initiated by indigenous peoples. The argument to follow will be built on three case studies: the Sámi in Norway, the Nisga´a in BC, Canada, and the Ainu in Japan.
International Migration Expectations Among Icelandic Youth
Þóroddur Bjarnason (University of Akureyri, Iceland
Migration intentions are moderate to strong predictors of actual migration and collective migration intentions of adolescents predict community-level migration trends. Beyond such direct predictions, attitudes among youth provide a sensitive indicator of global cultural, social and economic influences. Perceived affinity with the people of other countries and the choice of future residence is part of the process of identity formation in a world characterized by constant flux. Among Icelandic adolescents, emigration expectations increased substantially between 1992 and 2007. They feel the strongest affinity with neighbouring Faroe Islands and Denmark, but the United States is their dominant destination of choice. A lack of national identity, low national pride, and being raised abroad are the strongest predictors of emigration expectations. Parental educational attainment, non-traditional family structure, and urban residence are also associated with such expectations. Perceived affinity with other North Atlantic countries is associated with less emigration expectations, while perceived affinities with continental Nordic and European core countries are associated with greater expectations. Compared to the European core countries, adolescents who would prefer moving to North Atlantic or continental Nordic countries are more likely to expect emigration, while those who prefer North American destinations are more likely to harbour such expectations.
Local perceptions of global climate change in the Komi Republic in Russia
Timo P. Karjalainen,Timo Järvikoski & Pentti Luoma (University of Oulu, Finland)
This article explores perceptions of climate change in the Komi Republic (Russia). It focuses on connections between local perceptions and global concepts as well as discourses of climate change in the local contexts. The study is part of the global change project TUNDRA and the research material consists of thematic interviews of occupational groups and policy makers as well as a general survey study. It seems that although we can perhaps speak about globalisation of the environment, it has only partly homogenized public perceptions and opinions. An individual’s engagement with the surrounding environment, local conditions and socio-political contexts shape perceptions of climate change. It is important to grasp the difference between two kinds of strategies in perception research: one is to investigate ”top-down” people’s knowledge or attitudes of global environmental problems (defined by global discourses) via surveys, whereas the other strategy is to take the local context and individual’s life-world within it as a reference point of changes. In the latter case, climate change in the Komi Republic is actually more a personal concern of daily existence (health and well-being) than an environmental, a societal or a global issue. However, it is a ’background issue’ connected to other societal and environmental changes, and thus, not actively manifested in daily life.
Activation in Modern Governance The case of the Finnish Civil Participation Policy Programme 2003-2007
Peter Hilger (University of Helsinki)
This paper looks at the activation of civil society. By using the case of the Finnish Civil Participation Policy Programme 2003- 2007 it analyses techniques of activation with respect to the empowerment of citizens. The three main techniques within the programme were fostering of formal electoral participation, civic education and systematic screening and dissemination of information. It is argued that these techniques constitute an approach that fits well the Finnish tradition of civic engagement but falls short of embracing a broader range of civic activities, in particular those that not only include fundamentally divergent views, conflictual action repertoires but also activities that are close to citizens’ life-worlds.
The Mountain and the Sea as Mirrors of the Soul An approach from Georg Simmel’s AEsthetics and Gaston Bachelard’s Poetics
Enrique del Acebo Ibáñez (Universidad del Salvador, Argentina)
Two different thinkers, Georg Simmel and Gaston Bachelard, made brothers in spirit on account of both their intuitions genius, a singular approach to the world of life and the senses, to the mysteries of certain elements of Nature as well. Simmel raises the problem of the landscape and the understanding thereof in its quality of a deeply spiritual fact that can only be solved within such a context. It could be said that this is a selfenclosed vision that is experienced as a self-sufficient unit however intertwined with an infinitely remote extension thereafter aimed at overflowing even though enclosed within borders that do not exist with regard to a feeling toward a divine One –the total of Nature living, however, at a lesser level, on a different stratum.